ELISA test


Cytokines and granzymes are a group of signaling proteins that affect the behavior of cells. They are critically involved in various physiological processes such as immune regulation, cell differentiation, cell proliferation, chemotaxis and cell apoptosis. These signaling proteins are produced by a variety of cell types in many vertebrate species and are active at very low concentrations mostly in the picogram to femtogram range.

The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is one of the primary and most popular methods to detect and measure these signaling proteins. The ELISA test is rapid, simple to perform and is one of the most sensitive and reliable technologies available. This also accounts for the U-CyTech’s ELISA kits, that are simple and sensitive sandwich immunoassays for the detection and quantification of cytokine and granzyme levels in biological fluids, such as cell culture supernatant, plasma or serum.

The sandwich-type ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is conducted in antibody-coated 96-well microtiter plates where a standard and serial dilutions of samples (culture supernatant, serum or plasma) with unknown concentrations of the analyte of interest (e.g. cytokine or granzyme) are brought into the wells. The bound analyte is then allowed to associate with a biotinylated detection antibody and a streptavidin-HRP conjugate. Subsequently, ready-to-use TMB susbtrate is added producing a colored product that can be determined spectrophotometrically at 450 nm.


U-CyTech offers a wide range of ELISA tests for the detection of human, monkey, mouse and rat cytokines or granzymes e.g. GM-CSF, Granzyme B, IFN-γ, interleukin family members (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, etc.), Perforin, TNF-α.
The monkey ELISA kits have been validated for various Old World monkey species including rhesus macaques, pig-tailed macaques, cynomolgous monkeys and baboons.
U-CyTech has also developed ELISA kits for the detection of cytokines from the Marmoset (New World monkey species), including IFN-γ, TNF-α and several interleukin family members (IL-2, IL-6, IL-17A, etc.).
Our ELISA tests are widely applied in different research fields, including cancer research (1, 2), vaccine development (3, 4), infectious diseases (5, 6, 7), autoimmune diseases (8, 9), organ transplantation (10, 11) and parasitology (12, 13). Hundreds of peer-reviewed publications describe the successful use of U-CyTech’s ELISA tests and/ or apply our high affinity antibodies in other immunoassays. Please find them in our Reference database.


U-CyTech ELISA tests

Follow these links to go to direct our:

ELISPOT applied in researchFAQs ELISAManual databaseReference databaseELISA productsOrdering information


References ELISA products


Click on the authors for the abstract of the below mentioned acticles.

1. Pouw N, Treffers-Westerlaken E, Kraan J, Wittink F, Ten Hagen T, Verweij J and Debets R
    Combination of IL-21 and IL-15 enhances tumour-specific cytotoxicity and cytokine production of TCR-transduced
    primary T cells.
    Cancer Immunol Immunother 59:921-31 (2010).
    U-CyTech products used in this study:
    Mouse IFN-γ ELISA kit
    Mouse IL-10 ELISA kit

2. Skov L, Allen MH, Bang B, Francis D, Barker JN and Baadsgaard O
    Basal cell carcinoma is associated with high TNF-alpha release but nor with TNF-alpha polymorphism at position--308.
    Exp Dermatol 12:772-6 (2003). 
    U-CyTech products used in this study:
    Human TNF-α ELISA kit

3. Bai B, Hu Q, Hu H, Zhou P, Shi Z, Meng J, Lu B, Huang Y, Mao P and Wang H
    Virus-like particles of SARS-like coronavirus formed by membrane proteins from different origins demonstrate
    stimulating activity in human dendritic cells.
    PLoS One 3:e2685 (2008).
    U-CyTech products used in this study:
    Human IL-6 ELISA kit
    Human IL-10 ELISA kit
    Human TNF-α ELISA kit
4. Zhang W, Ahmad G, Torben W, Noor Z, Le L, Damian RT, Wolf RF, White GL, Chavez-Suarez M, Podesta
     RB, Kennedy RC, and Siddiqui 

     Sm-p80-based DNA vaccine provides baboons with levels of protection against Schistosoma mansoni infection
     comparable to those achieved by the irradiated cercarial vaccine.
     J Infect Dis 201:1105-12 (2010).
     U-CyTech products used in this study:
     Monkey IFN-γ ELISA kit
     Monkey IL–2 ELISA kit
     Monkey IL-4 ELISA kit
     Monkey IL-10 ELISA kit
     Monkey species: Papio anubis

5. Chang WL, Baumgarth N, Yu D and Barry PA
     Human cytomegalovirus-encoded interleukin-10 homolog inhibits maturation of dendritic cells and alters their
     functionality. J Virol 78:8720-31 (2004).
     U-CyTech products used in this study:
     Human IL-6 ELISA kit
     Human IL-10 ELISA kit
     Human IL-12p70 ELISA kit
     Human TNF-α ELISA kit

6. Duan R, Remeijer L, van Dun JM, Osterhaus AD, and Verjans GM
     Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor expression in human herpetic stromal keratitis: implications for the
     role of neutrophils in HSK.
     Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 48:277-84 (2007).
     U-CyTech products used in this study:
     Human GM-CSF ELISA

7. De Swart RL, Kuiken T, Timmerman HH, van Amerongen G, Van Den Hoogen BG, Vos HW, Neijens HJ,       
     Andeweg AC and
 Osterhaus AD

     Immunization of macaques with formalin-inactivated respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) induces interleukin-13-associated
     hypersensitivity to subsequent RSV infection.
     J Virol 76:11561-9 (2002).
     U-CyTech products used in this study:
     Monkey IFN-γ ELISA kit
     Monkey IL-2 ELISA kit
     Monkey IL-4 ELISA kit
     Monkey IL-5 ELISA kit
     Monkey IL-10 ELISA kit
     Monkey IL-13 ELISA kit
     Monkey species: Macaca fascicularis

8. Bakker JM, Kavelaars A, Kamphuis PJ, Cobelens PM, van Vugt HH, van Bel F and Heijnen CJ
    Neonatal dexamethasone treatment increases susceptibility to experimental autoimmune disease in adult rats.
    J Immunol 165:5932-7 (2000).
    U-CyTech products used in this study:
    Rat TNF-α ELISA kit

9. Jagessar SA, Kap YS, Heijmans N, van Driel N, van Straalen L, Bajramovic JJ, Brok HP, Blezer EL, Bauer 
    J, Laman JD and t Hart BA

    Induction of progressive demyelinating autoimmune encephalomyelitis in common marmoset monkeys using   
    MOG34-56 peptide in incomplete freund adjuvant.
    J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 69:372-85 (2010).
    U-CyTech products used in this study:
    Human IL-1β ELISA kit
    Human IL-6 ELISA kit
    Human TNF-α ELISA kit
    Monkey IFN-γ ELISA kit
    Monkey TNF-α ELISA kit
    Monkey species: Callithrix jacchus

10. Demirkiran A, Bosma BM, Kok A, Baan CC, Metselaar HJ, Ijzermans JN, Tilanus HW, Kwekkeboom 
     J, and van der Laan LJ

     Allosuppressive donor CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells detach from the graft and circulate in
     recipients after liver transplantation. J Immunol 178:6066-72 (2007).
     U-CyTech products used in this study:
     Human IFN-γ ELISA kit

11. Tha-In T, Metselaar HJ, Tilanus HW, Boor PP, Mancham S, Kuipers EJ, de Man RA and
     Kwekkeboom J

     Superior immunomodulatory effects of intravenous immunoglobulins on human T-cells and dendritic cells: comparison 
     to calcineurin inhibitors.
     Transplantation 81:1725-34 (2006).
     U-CyTech products used in this study:
     Human IFN-γ ELISA kit
     Human IL-4 ELISA kit

12. Janssen R, Van Wengen A, Verhard E, De Boer T, Zomerdijk T, Ottenhoff TH and Van Dissel JT
     Divergent role for TNF-alpha in IFN-gamma-induced killing of Toxoplasma gondii and Salmonella typhimurium
     contributes to selective susceptibility of patients with partial IFN-gamma receptor1 deficiency.
     J Immunol 169:3900-7 (2002).
     U-CyTech products used in this study:
     Human IFN-γ ELISA kit

13. Ozwara H, Langermans JA, Kocken CH, van der Wel A, van der Meide PH, Vervenne RA, Mwenda JM, 
      and Thomas AW

    Transfected Plasmodium knowlesi produces bioactive host gamma interferon: a new perspective for modulating
    immune responses to malaria parasites.
    Infect Immun 71:4375-81 (2003).
    U-CyTech products used in this study:
    Monkey IFN-γ ELISA kit
    Monkey species: Macaca mulatta