ELISA

ELISA

ELISA and cytokines

Cytokines and granzymes are a group of signaling proteins that affect the behavior of cells. They are critically involved in various physiological processes such as immune regulation, cell differentiation, cell proliferation, chemotaxis and cell apoptosis. These signaling proteins are produced by a variety of cell types in many vertebrate species and are active at very low concentrations mostly in the picogram to femtogram range.

The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is one of the primary and most popular methods to detect and measure these signaling proteins. The assay is rapid, simple to perform and is one of the most sensitive and reliable technologies available.
U-CyTech offers various high-quality ELISA kits and antibody pairs for the detection of cytokine and granzyme levels in biological fluids, such as cell culture supernatant, plasma or serum.

Brief description of the ELISA procedure

The sandwich ELISA is performed in antibody-coated 96-well microtiter plates. Samples with unknown concentrations of the analyte of interest (e.g. cytokine or granzyme) and a serially diluted standard with known analyte concentrations are added. Thereafter, the bound analyte is then allowed to associate with a biotinylated detection antibody and a streptavidin-HRP conjugate. Subsequently, ready-to-use TMB substrate is added, that produces a colored product and can be determined by a spectrophotometer. 
The different steps of the ELISA procedure are illustrated in the ELISA Flow diagram.

Application

U-CyTech provides a wide range of ELISA kits and antibody pairs for the detection of human, monkey, mouse and rat cytokines or granzymes e.g. GM-CSF, Granzyme B, IFN-γ, interleukin family members (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, etc.), Perforin, TNF-α.
The monkey ELISA products have been validated for various Old World monkey species including rhesus macaques, pig-tailed macaques, cynomolgus monkeys and baboons.
U-CyTech also offers ELISA products for the detection of cytokines in marmoset samples (New World monkey species), including IFN-γ, TNF-α and several interleukin family members (IL-2, IL-6, IL-17A, etc.).
 
Our ELISA products are widely applied in different research fields, including cancer research1,2, vaccine development3,4, infectious diseases5,6,7,8 and autoimmune diseases9. Hundreds of peer-reviewed publications describe the successful use of U-CyTech’s ELISA products and/ or apply our high affinity antibodies in other immunoassays. Please find these references in our Reference database.

 

U-CyTech ELISA products

Follow these links to go to direct our:

ELISPOT applied in researchFAQs ELISAELISA guidelinesManual databaseReference databaseELISA productsOrdering information

 

References ELISA products

 

Click on the authors for the abstract of the below mentioned acticles.

  1. Chiriva-Internati M et al. (2012). Identification of AKAP-4 as a new cancer/testis antigen for detection and immunotherapy of prostate cancer. Prostate. 72: 12-23.
  2. Straetemans T et al. (2015). Recurrence of melanoma following T cell treatment: continued antigen expression in a tumor that evades T cell recruitment. Mol. Ther. 23: 396-406.
  3. Ghotloo S et al. (2015). Immunomodulatory effects of chitin microparticles on Leishmania major-infected BALB/c mice. Parasitol. Int. 64: 219-21.
  4. Zhang W et al. (2018). Schistosoma mansoni antigen Sm-p80: prophylactic efficacy using TLR4 agonist vaccine adjuvant glucopyranosyl lipid A-Alum in murine and non-human primate models. J. Investig. Med. 8:1124-1132.
  5. Zhao Y et al. (2013). Modulation of inflammatory bowel disease in a mouse model following infection with Trichinella spiralis. Vet. Parasitol. 194: 211-6.
  6. Nelson M and Loveday M (2015). Exploring the innate immunological response of an alternative nonhuman primate model of infectious disease; the common marmoset. J. Immunol. Res. 2014: 913632.
  7. Larsen M et al. (2020). Afucosylated IgG characterizes enveloped viral responses and correlates with COVID-19 severity. Science 371 (6532): eabc8378.
  8. Wong E et al. (2020). IL-10 Impairs Local Immune Response in Lung Granulomas and Lymph Nodes during Early Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection. J. Immunol.  204(3): 644-659.
  9. Karwasra R et al. (2019). Pomegranate supplementation attenuates inflammation, joint dysfunction via inhibition of NF-κB signaling pathway in experimental models of rheumatoid arthritis. J. Food Biochem. 43: e12959.