Reference Database

HCV persistence and immune evasion in the absence of memory T cell help.
Grakoui, Arash
Shoukry, Naglaa H
Woollard, David J
Han, Jin-Hwan
Hanson, Holly L
Ghrayeb, John
Murthy, Krishna K
Rice, Charles M
Walker, Christopher M
Science (New York, N.Y.) 2003 Oct 24;302: 659-62

Spontaneous resolution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in humans usually affords long-term immunity to persistent viremia and associated liver diseases. Here, we report that memory CD4+ Tcells are essential for this protection. Antibody-mediated depletion of CD4+ Tcells before reinfection of two immune chimpanzees resulted in persistent, low-level viremia despite functional intra-hepatic memory CD8+ Tcell responses. Incomplete control of HCV replication by memory CD8+ Tcells in the absence of adequate CD4+ Tcell help was associated with emergence of viral escape mutations in class I major histocompatibility complex-restricted epitopes and failure to resolve HCV infection.

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