Reduced IL-4 associated antibody responses to vaccine in early pre-diabetes.
Diabetologia 2002 May;45: 677-85
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to determine whether beta-cell autoimmunity is associated with immune response bias to exogenous antigens.
METHODS: IgG subclass responses against tetanus toxoid and rubella were measured after vaccination in children with (n=36) and without (n=73) islet autoantibodies participating in the BABYDIAB prospective study of offspring of parents with Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. All children had been vaccinated against tetanus toxoid antigen before 6 months of age and at 18 months of age, and against live attenuated rubella virus at 18 months of age and again before 5 years of age. Tetanus toxoid specific IgG subclasses and cytokine responses were compared in a second cohort of subjects.
RESULTS: Responses to tetanus toxoid in islet-autoantibody-negative children were characterized by early IgG1 antibodies at 9 months of age followed by the appearance of IgG4 and lesser IgG2 antibodies at 2 years of age. Children who had developed islet autoimmunity before one year of age (n=15) did not have the shift to IgG4 and IgG2 anti-TT after booster vaccination (p
CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: These data are consistent with a reduced capacity to make IL-4 promoted antibody responses to exogenous antigen in early pre-diabetes.