Reference Database

In Vitro Characterization of Human CD24CD38 Regulatory B Cells Shows CD9 Is Not a Stable Breg Cell Marker.
Mohd Jaya, Fatin N
Garcia, Sergio G
Borras, Francesc E
Guerrero, Dolores
Chan, Godfrey C F
Franquesa, Marcella
International journal of molecular sciences 2021 Apr 27;22(9): 4583

Regulatory B (Breg) cells are endowed with immune suppressive functions. Various human and murine Breg subtypes have been reported. While interleukin (IL)-10 intracellular staining remains the most reliable way to identify Breg cells, this technique hinders further essential functional studies. Recent findings suggest that CD9 is an effective surface marker of murine IL-10 competent Breg cells. However, the stability of CD9 and its relevance as a unique marker for human Breg cells, which have been widely characterized as CD24CD38, have not been investigated. Here, we demonstrate that CD9 expression is sensitive to in vitro B cell stimulations. CD9 expression could either be re-expressed or downregulated in purified CD9-negative B cells and CD9-positive B cells, respectively. We found no significant differences in the Breg differentiation capacity of the CD9-negative and CD9-positive B cells. Furthermore, CD9-positive B cells co-express CD40 and CD86, suggesting their nature as B cell activation or co-stimulatory molecules, rather than regulatory ones. Therefore, we report the relatively unstable CD9 as a distinct surface molecule, indicating the need for further research for a more reliable marker to purify human Breg cells.

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